Dépouillement de Medicina nei secoli

vol 11, 1999 - Cote BIU Santé Médecine : 96.633

TOUWAIDE, Alain, ANGELETTI, Luciana Rita. Medicine in Byzantium (10th C. - 1453) : Health problems and medical answers, medical culture and scientific exchanges
MALAMUT, Elisabeth. Histoire de Byzance du Xe siècle à 1453 : introduction
BLIQUEZ, Lawrence J. The surgical instrumentarium of Leon Iatrosophistes

This study examines the surgical operations in the ninth century treatise Synopsis of the Medical Art authored by Leon Iatrosophistes, with particular attention to the instruments required. It is argued here on the basis of this and other relevant Byzantine texts that the surgeons of the Middle and late Byzantine Periods had available most, if not all, of the instruments employed in the Roman Empire and the Early Byzantine Period. Based on these findings, it is also maintained that the state of the surgical art throughout Byzantine times remained more or less at the same level of expertise.

MILLER, Timothy S. Byzantine physicians and their hospitals

Byzantine medicine was organized around hospitals. By the eleventh and twelfth centuries, the best physicians of Constantinople treated their patients either in hospitals or in walk-in dispensaries which formed part of the hospital facilities. Byzantine hospitals were thus medical institutions. This article will review the evidence for this conclusion and introduce two new texts dealing with hospitals in Constantinople. The article will close by suggesting avenues for future research, especially regarding hospitals in provincial ciries.

CONSTANTELOS, Demetrios J. Medicine and social welfare in the Byzantine Empire

Byzantine medicine was guided by Hippocratic principles and Christian theological precepts, all of which viewed the human being as a psychosomatic entity. Medical philisophy and Christian theology had achivied an alliance, and the well-being of the entire person was the central objective of both. Along with pharmaceutical herbs and drugs, diet and baths, exercices and optimistic outlooks, Byzantine physicians, whether laymen or clergymen, emphasized rational treatment but also the need for religious faith and hope. Even though the holy man and his miraculous therapeutic powers were highly respected, appreciation of the power of logic had never gone into a total eclipse throughout the Byzantine era. Thanks to the work of good physicians and their impact on the welfare of society medicine obtained high respect in 9th century. Nevertheless, the dialogue between secular and spiritual approaches to health and social welfare continued unabated down to the fall of the Byzantine Empire.

PAPATHANASSIOU, Maria. Iatromathematica (medical astrology) in Late Antiquity and the Byzantine period

Byzantium inherited the rich astrological tradition of Late Antiquity, especially that of Alexandria, where even the 6th century AD., astrology was taught in philosophical schools. The great number of Byzantine astrological MSS, which preserve works of famous authors and many anonymous treatises, shows the survival and continuity of astrology in Byzantinium. Through medical astrology physicians can better understand the temperament of an individual man and find out about his bodily constitution and psychic faculties, his inclination to chronic and accute diseases, the possibilities of curable or incurable cases, and finally the periods of major danger for his health. They can also conjecture about the evolution of a disease, choose a favourable time for an operation, or initiate a cure.

CONGOURDEAU, Marie-Hélène. La peste noire à Constantinople de 1348 à 1466

The Black Death visited Constantinople eleven times between 1348, when the epidemic surged in the Mediterranean world, and 1466 when our inquiry ends. We know of these visits from the writings of eye-witnesses who describe their experiences in correspondance written at that time, in stories reconstructed retrospectively, or in theological discussions. After having related the story of these eleven epidemic episodes, this article will try to catch, through these sources, the medical perception of the plague by contemporaries, its social consequences and its psychological, spiritual and theological repercussions.

LASCARATOS, John. Ophtalmomogy in Byzantium (10th - 15th centuries)

The study and analysis of the Byzantine texts after the 9th century, especially those of Theophanes and Ioannes Actuarius, reveals that the ophtalmology of this epoch follows in general lines theknowledge of the earlier ancient Greek and Byzantine physicians, adding however, remarkable clarifications as to differential diagnosis and treatment. Nevertheless, there is some noteworthy information in the historical and hagiographical texts that indicate the high level of the practice of his specialty in Byzantine hospitals (xenones) in the middle and late periods.

LASCARATOS, John, MARKETOS, Spyros. Intestinal obstruction. A paradigm of earlier influences on the medicine of late Byzantium

The study and analysis of aetiology, symptomatology and treatment of intestinal obstruction, based on the texts of Byzantine physicians from the early until the late epoch, prove that the way in which the illness is conceived is substantially unchanged throughout this period. The texts of Byzantine historians and chroniclers present three fatal instances of this disease (ileus or chordapsus, according to the terminology of Byzantine medicine). These are the cases of the Emperor Tiberius I Constantine (578-582), Patriarch Anastasius (730-754) and Empress Theodora (1042 and 1055-1056) ; the causes of their death remained unknown in the broader medical and historical bibliography. Intestinal obstruction is one of the disease which probably supported earlier researchers in their opinion of a substantially' static condition' of Byzantine medicine.

SERARCANGELI, Carla. Lo strumentario del museo di storia della medicina per la cura del tumore erniario