Abstracts on historical topics at the
European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology

11th EADV Congress, Prague, Oct 2nd-6th, 2002

These abstracts appeared in J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2002 ; 16 : supp 1: 1-341.

Workshop 11 : LESSONS FROM THE HISTORY

Organized in collaboration with the ESHDV

EADV 2002 - W11-1
Introduction
Holubar K Institute for the History of Medicine University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria

Today�s World Medicine developed from European medicine of the 19th century. Europe has a rich tradition of historical collections and museums due to the many traditional universities and medical academies all over the continent. At a point of time when the humanities in general and medical history in particular, are widely removed from students�curricula, the presentation of historical treasures and their evaluation in the development of modern medicine is ever more necessary lest all these objects, ideas, prints, drawings, models (moulages), are forgotten. The paucity of public funding will eventually casuse their decay over the decades and centuries and will permanently remove much of what still can be admired today. Medicine always had a historical conscicense of its own field and we, the dermato-historians, should make every effort to cultivate our specific heritage. The session today is dedicated to museums from various parts of Europe and I hope it will meet your interest and stimulate your enthusiasm.

EADV 2002 - W11-2
Montpellier : the museums of anatomy and pharmacy
Durand C CHU, Montpellier, France

The Faculty of Medicine of Montpellier was created in 1220. Its activity has been constant to these days and the traces of the past still exist everywhere. There are several museums of Sciences`s History in Montpellier. The museum of Anatomy is situated inside the old Faculty of Medicine and created in 1794, built in 1847 and opened in 1851. The personalities involved in the History of Dermatology in Montpellier participated in the creation of this museum too (Alqui�, Benoit, Courty�). This huge museum, 520 m2, exhibits more than 5000 pieces; the cabinet N�14 contains a beautiful collection of casts showing the cutaneous diseases, and some wonderful wax pieces of anatomic works representing all the stages of venereal diseases. The museum of Pharmacy, situated inside the Faculty of Pharmacy was opened in 1982. We can see two old chemist`s shop reconstructed there, a collection of old chemist`s instruments of J. Balard who have discovered the bromine in Montpellier. Finally, a beautiful collection of chemist`s earthenware shows us the value of Montpellier`s production. The link between the History of Dermatology and its museum appears through the representation of spa, as the explanations of spa care, the composition of different kind of water which treated cutaneous diseases and advertising poster about Av�ne les Bains which was specialized in the treatment of skin diseases. This museum also includes a small library with precious old books from Rondelet to Boissier de Sauvages.

EADV 2002 - W11-3
Moulage museum and library at the Department of Dermatology in Wroclaw (Breslau)
Bialynicki-Birula R , Szymczak T , Wasik F Department of Dermatology, Wroclaw Medical University, Wroclaw, Poland

Department of Dermatology in Wroclaw (Breslau) was established in 1876, and in 1892 was located in the building which serves as the department of dermatology till today. Prof. Albert Neisser (1855-1916) was the head of the department from 1882. Moulage museum: The old lecture room is now full of glass cupboards with moulages, the figures presenting skin lesions. The moulage art was very common from 1890`s till 1920`s. The Wroclaw collection was started by Arning and Neisser. 8 plaster (gypsum) moluages of Lepromatous leprosy on the faces are dated 1883-85. The first wax moulages were made by Paul Berliner (1890-7), next figures by Alfons Kroener who worked from 1897 till 1937. Many examples of his work enriched other collections, for example the one in Kiel. Kroener produced about 100 moulages annually, and created almost 2700 between 1897-1937. The collection in later Neisser�s time consisted of about 1000 figures, and nowdays there are 304. The moulages were one of the best way to show students and young assistants morphology of skin changes. There are examples of mycoses, tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, borreliosis, antrax and many others. They were a piece of art in those days, and are not so useful nowdays, when colour pictures are commonly available. The library of the Department was founded together with the building. There are several thousands books and volumes of journals which were collected from the first issues. For example very rare Arch. fuer Dermatol. und Syphil. which were edited in Prague in 1870�s. The most precious book is Les Teignes by R Sauburaud, Paris 1910 and the oldest one is Disputatio Medica inauguralis de Gonorrhoe by H Grube, Lubec 1666.

EADV 2002 - W11-4
Dermatological collection in Germany
Scholz A Institute for History of Medicine, Dresden, Germany

The most famous German museums for history of medicine in Ingolstadt/Munich an din Kiel do not contain documents of the history of dermatology. By contrast to these museums three other institutions specialize in the history of dermatology. These are the museums of Saalman factory in Herford, the clinic for plastic surgery in Hornheide/M�nster, and the institute for history of medicine of the Technical University of Dresden. The development of UV-therapy is the main-point of the Saalman collection, which contains various kinds of quartz-lamps, and the modern apparatus of UV-treatment. The museum of the clinic for plastic surgery displays carbon arc lamp, mercury arc lamp, and the instruments for electrosurgery invented by Vincenz Wucherpfennig. Dresden was a center for manufacturing of wax moulages. The production started about 1900 and stopped in 1989 in the German Hygiene Museums. About 300 pieces are maintained and can be seen in the Hygiene Museum and in the dermatological department of the hosspital of Dresden-Friedrichstadt. The institute for history of medicine is collecting instruments and apparatus for dermatosurgery and cryosurgery.

EADV 2002 - W11-5
The medico-historical collections in Vienna
Fatovic-Ferenčic S (1) , Holubar K (2)
(1)Department of the History of Medicine, Zagreb, Croatia
(2)Institute for the History of Medicine University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria

Today�s World Medicine developed from European medicine of the 19th century. Europe has a rich tradition of historical collections and museums thanks to many traditional universities and medical academies all over the continent. At the present period when the humanities in general and medical history in particular, are widely eliminated from students�curricula, the presentation of historical treasures and their evaluation in the development of modern medicine are ever more necessary lest all these objects, ideas, prints, drawings, models (moulages), are forgotten. The paucity of public funding will eventually cause their decay over the decades and centuries and will permanently remove much of what still can be admired today. Medicine always had a historical conscicence of its own field and we, the dermato-historians, should make every effort to cultivate our specific heritage. The session today is dedicated to museums from various parts of Europe and I hope it will meet your interest and stimulate your enthusiasm. Vienna University was founded 1365 and is therefore the third oldest north of the Alps after Prague 1348 and Krakow 1364. International fame was gained only at the end of the 17th century and Paul de Sorbait (1624-1691), from Mons, Belgium, and especially after the reforms of Gerard van Swieten (1700-1772). The so-called First School developed in the 18th century, when van Swieten, Anton de Haen (1704-1776), Maximilian Stoll (1742-1787), Leopold Auenbrugger (1722-1809) excelled. The Second School had Karl Rokitansky (1804-1878), Joseph Skoda (1805-1881) and Ferdinand Hebra (1816-1880) as the heading triumvirate. In the second quarter of the 20th century the Vienna school made a nose-dive in consequence of the expulsion and annihiliation of Jews amongst them many celebrities in the field. In 1785 the Allgemeine Krankenhaus and the adjoining Military Medical Academy, the Josephinum, had 3200 beds available. Modelled after the Acad�mie Royale de Chirurgie in Paris, it was amply equipped with instruments, books, a fine building and innumerable Florentine wax models intended to serve as teaching aids. The same holds for the so-called Josephine Library of several thousand priceless volumes providing the students with ample literary sources. In the course of the 19th century Karl Rokitansky who started a collection of pathological preparations which, by today, also numbers into the thousands which are preserved next to the Josephinum. At the same site, more than 2300 moulages are kept, the second biggest collection after Saint-Louis in Paris. As a unique specialty of the Vienna museums (there are also a forensic, a dental and an electropathological museums) serve the many dozens of dermatological water colors painted by doctors.

EADV 2002 - W11-6
The Dermatology Museum of the Hopital Saint-Louis in Paris
Wallach D , Tilles G French Society for the History of Dermatology, Paris, France

Since 1801, the Hôpital Saint-Louis was almost exclusively a dermatology hospital. Many heads of departments had gathered representations of skin diseases, as engravings, atlases and watercolors. Starting in 1867, wax moulages were made, thanks to a talented craftsman, Jules Baretta. These medico-artistic collections were first kept in a corridor between two wards. The building of a Museum was first studied in 1874 and decided by the City council in 1881. The building was erected between 1882 and 1885 and officially inaugurated on August 5, 1889, the opening day of the First World Congress of Dermatology, which was held in the main Hall of the Museum. At this time, about 2300 moulages could be seen. They were much admired, and used for diagnostic discussions. Henri Feulard is to be remembered as the first curator of the Museum, now a National Historical Monument. The Museum building was conceived as a facility allowing physicians and students a high quality teaching of dermatology: the busy and renowned outpatient clinical was on the first floor, the medical library, lecture room and moulages collection on the second floor. In building such a �Skin School�, the Paris hospital dermatologists hoped to favor a specialty teaching, not done at this time by the Paris Facult� de Médecine, and to restore the prestige of the Paris School of Dermatology, challenged by the Vienna school. Still intact, the Saint-Louis Museum building harbours 4500 moulages, a dermatology library, an ancient photographic collection, paintings, sculptures, and historical archives. It needs constant attention and support from the hospital administration and the dermatologists� community.

EADV 2002 - W11-7
Sexually transmitted diseases in Belarus in XIXth - the beginning of XXth century
Svetlovich T Belarus Museum for the History of Medicine, Minsk, Belarus

The original materials about the spreading and the study and measures of prevention of sexually transmitted diseases in the XIXth century to the beginning of the Xxth century period are presented at the Belarus Museum for the History of Medicine: photos, documents, doctor�s thesis, books, papers, medical instruments etc. Examinations of venereal diseases occupied an outstanding place in the frame of all medical investigations of the doctors, natives of Belarus and practising on its territory. It was stipulated by a wide spreading of venereal diseases. In 1791 doctor A.Leffler from Vitebsk in his monography has located paper about treatment of venereal diseases. The native of Belarus the professor of Vilno University F.Riemkevich in 1822 has published the monography about lues and he has acted against wide-spread during this period judgement on uniform venereal illness. P.Gorjaninov, the native of Belarus, in 1823 has defended thesis about a lues in the Petersburg Medico-Surgery Academy. In the second half of the XIX century discovery of specimens of a gonorrohea, venereal ulcer, lues promoted development of the further examinations of venereal diseases. In series of papers and theses of the doctors of Belarus the detailed performance of a lues with exposition of an etiology, clinical displays and treatment of this illness is given. In some operations series of problems touching defeat of organs and systems surveyed at a lues, the early and remote consequences of defeats of nervous system are investigated at this disease. More penetrating study of mechanisms of Hydrargyrum drugs activity for the treatment of a lues was carried out, as well as the new expedients of their introduction. The great scientific achievements of foreign scientists in the field of venereology found prompt applications in the practice of doctors of Belarus. So, the discovery by P.Ehrlich in 1909 of an arsenic drug salvarsan and in 1912 of neosalvarsan has immediately attracted attention of the Belarusian doctors. In 1910 in Minsk was realized an out-patient treatment of the patients by a lues with application of intravenous injections of salvarsan. A leading theme of operation and performance of the doctors were the problems associated with a struggle against transmitted diseases, frequently discussed at sessions of medical societies and congresses of the doctors, which were organized at this time.

EADV 2002 - W11-8
The teaching of dermatology in the Medical School of Porto � a visit to the Museum of History of Medicine �Maximiano Lemos�
Ferraz AR Museu de Hist�ria de Medicina �Maximiano Lemos�, Porto, Portugal

The Museum of the History of Medicine �Maximiano Lemos� of the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Porto was founded in 1933 by Professor Lu�s de Pina, the second Professor of the discipline History of Medicine in the history of the Medical School of Porto. Its a unique example of its kind in Portugal. The Museum develops under and postgraduate education, scientific and museologic research and functionates as an extremely useful source of knowledge about medical theory and practices for its comunity. The collections of the Museum are diverse but always subordinated to the History of Medical Science.There is much for visitor to explore, learning about the difficulties in the development of Dermatology Teaching in the Medical School of Porto through Art, the medical object or the the documentary heritage of the Museum. These are also a faithful witness of the contribution made from professors and students to the increasing valorization of their own medical curriculum.

Other communications on History of Dermatology at the EADV 2002, Prague

Workshop 9 : Highlights of czech and slovak dermatology. Organized in collaboration with the CDS and the SDS.

EADV 2002 - W9-2
The past legacy, present activity and future perspectives of the dermatovenereologic clinic
Buček M Medical faculty, Palack� University, Teaching Hospital, Olomouc, Czech Republic

The present dermatovenereologic clinic in Olomouc has a history going back for several centuries. The first medieval hospital in Olomouc called "Hospitale Sancti Spiritus" was founded in the year 1246. It was followed by several others. Unfortunately, exact information how skin diseases were treated in middle ages is not available. In the year 1855, the first public, state-run hospital was opened in Olomouc. An independent dermatovenereologic department was opened later, in the year 1908, in the new Institutes of the Moravian Lands. In the year 1946, the university in Olomouc was reopened and the dermatovenereological clinic was refounded. The Laboratory for Research on the Physiology of Skin was opened in the year 1956. Activity at the clinic are at present performed within 8 specialized out-patient departments. Altogether, the clinic possesses 38 beds. In the years 1992-2001, the employees of the clinic published 67 scientific papers, delivered 116 lectures, 21 posters, 3 textbooks and completed 5 international medical study projects. The clinic organizes a scholarly event each year, called "Olomouc Dermatologic Afternoon". In the area of pedagogical and medical activity, our clinic is comparable with other similar clinics in the EU countries. Our most important task for future is to expand and to orient our scientific research work towards the acquisition of various prospective grants.

EADV 2002 - W9-3
Past, present and perspective of the Slovak dermatovenereology
Danilla T The Department of Pediatric Dermatovenereology, School of Medicine Comenius University, Children University Hospital, Bratislava, Slovakia

The history of Czech and Slovak dermatovenereology is closely related. Dermatovenereology have played very important role in the resolving of the so called social skin diseases as were syphilis, tuberculosis and later dermatophytoses and occupational skin diseases. Prof. Reinsberg, the founder of the Slovak dermatovenereology and professors Tr�ger, Chmel, Reh�k, Hegyi, Mal�, Uhr�k participated on resolving problems mentioned above.

Medicine and dermatovenereology are being geriatrised at presence and is going to future. Chronic dermatoses, skin cancers are likely to increasin incidence. The patiens will be polymorbidic, with minisymptomatology and atypically features. Dermatovenereology is comming to be more social. The low techs approaches are going to be searched in the treatment and based home care. On the other side the esthetic dermatology will be unfolded. Dermatological science will be interested in the barier function of epidermis, skin aging, genetics and genetical engineering, integration of the biomedical informations, improvement of the noninvasive methods of skin examinations, searching new pathogenesis of dermatoses and cancers, new modern treatment methods. Genodermatoses of the skin are excelent pattern for genetical engineering. It is the challenge for gene treatment not only in dermatovenereology but in medicine as well. The solving of problems already mentioned reguires changes in pregradual and postgradual education of people working in dermatovenereology in order to be ready to control this problems in nursing and public medical services.

Symposium of the European Task Force on Atopic Dermatitis

EADV 2002 - SSS9-1
Atopic eczema (dermatitis) : the genesis of a clinical concept among dermatologists 1880-1930
Taieb A Service de Dermatologie, Hôpital Saint Andr�, Bordeaux, France

Before the coining of atopy by Coca and Cooke, referring to a hereditary trait associated to clinical symptoms in the respiratory apparatus (1923), dermatologists have made substantial efforts in the XIX and early XXth century to delineate what we designate today as atopic eczema (dermatitis). The Vienna school led by Ferdinand Hebra and later by Moritz Kaposi has termed prurigo (of Hebra) a pruritic lichenified dermatosis associated with chronic lymphadenopathy and asthma that we would consider now as a reversed pattern of AD. Besnier has discussed this entity in his copious comments of Kaposi�s lessons, and delineated what was later called �prurigo diath�sique of Besnier�. It happened that this subject was not discussed at the first international dermatologic meeting in Paris (1889), where the nosological problems of lichen planus and pityriasis rubra pilaris were solved just by examining patients by dermatologists of several countries. It is interesting to note that the disease was considered as rare in dermatological statistics at the end of the XIXth century in France (Dubreuilh et Fr�che, 1895), and not very clearly related to the various presentations of infantile eczema. The very comprehensive reports of Darier, Jadassohn and Bloch at the VIIIth international congress in Copenhagen (1930), allow us to understand better how our predecessors tried to understand the pathophysiology of the eczemas and to delineate more precisely the entity that we discuss at the ETFAD meetings.

REFERENCES

1. Besnier et Doyon: Pathologie et traitement des maladies de la peau. Le�ons � l�usage des médecins praticiens et des étudiants par le Professeur Moritz Kaposi, Tome premier, seconde �dition, Masson, Paris, 1891, pp V-XXXVI.

2. W Dubreuilh et D Fr�che. Compte rendu statistique de la clinique dermatologique de la faculté de médecine de Bordeaux (1893-95). Archives cliniques de Bordeaux, Janvier 1896, pp 155-170

3. Etiologie et Pathog�nie de l�ecz�ma. VIII�me Congrès international de Dermatologie et de Syphiligraphie, Copenhague, 5-9 Août 1930, pp1- 75.

Symposium of the Ukrainian association of dermatovenereologists and cosmetologists (UADC)

EADV 2002 - SSS10-1
Historical stages in development of Ukrainian dermatology
Kolyadenko V Department of Dermatology, Venereology and AIDS, National Medical University, Kiev, Ukraine

The Ukrainian Dermatology exhibits 4 stages of development. The 1st period (until 1863) can be considered as a stage coming-to-be of scientific dermatology. This stage is connected with activity of the first Ukrainian professionally qualified dermatologist and lecturer of Ukrainian high medical school Dr. LK Goretsky, who on request of Paris Academy of Sciences in 1862 made thorough analysis of the condition of dermatological health care in and prevalence of mycosis�s in different regions of Ukraine. Dr. Goretsky founded the first specialized dermatological clinic in Ukraine and organized the lecture course of dermatology in St Volodymyr Kiev University. The 2nd period started in 1884 after formation of an independent chair of dermatology and venereology in Medical Faculty of Kiev University, which was headed by Prof. Stukovenkov, one of the founders of Ukrainian and Russian dermato-venereology. He was the first, who described in Russian scientific literature such pathology as pemphigus foliaceus, rhinoscleroma and grounded the treatment of syphilis by mercurial medicines. One of his followers Dr. Nikolsky, described the unique diagnostic symptom in case of pemphigus (in following known as Nikolsky symptom). During 2nd period were established close connections of Ukrainian dermatologists with colleagues in Western Europe, particularly with German and French dermatological schools. During 3rd period (1917-1991, �Sovietic times�) were founded 20 chairs of Dermatology and Venereology in 16 Medical Institutes and Universities. In 1924 was established Ukrainian Scientific and Research Institute of Dermatology and Venereology (Kharkov), which became the main center of dermatological and venereological investigations in country (founder à Prof. Fedorovich). One of the achievements of 3rd period was organization of network of post-graduate dermatological education in Ukraine (in Kiev, Kharkov, Donetsk and Lvov). The 4th period is conjuncted with getting independence for Ukraine (1991). Period characterized by improving scientific activity in Ukraine and renewal of international contacts. Quantity of scientific publication and research papers increased in STI and dermatological area increased 2 times during 1995-2001. In the last 11 years in Ukraine there were founded 3 dermatovenereological journals (edited in Kharkov, Dniepropetrovsk and in Kiev). Finally, in 2000 Ukrainian Association of dermatologists, venereologists and cosmetologists was registered, which united 1930 specialists in the field.

Posters

EADV 2002 - P11-7
Homage to Reverdin : pinch grafting
Delgado V , Ruiz R , Blasco J , Mart�n MC , Delgado FJ Department of Dermatology, Hospital Clinico, Granada, Spain

Ulcer management is problematic, diagnosis and proposing an effective therapy can be complicated, and sometimes even frustrating. An effective therapy is not only desirable (and essential) as regards relieving the patients� suffering, since the process can otherwise become chronic and considerably worsen quality of their life, but also with the aim of minimising the sanitary costs involved in this pathology. We present an old method to cure venous ulcers by transplanting small pieces of skin obtained by �shaving� the uppermost layers of the skin after pinching them between the index finger and thumb. This technique is currently known as Pinch grafting. This review is dedicated to Reverdin, who marked the beginning of an era, and to whom we acknowledge this traditional solution, which is still a viable one within modern medicine.

EADV 2002 - P18-1 A
Roanian athlete in syphilis competition
Tiplica GS , Salavastru C , Popescu S University of Medicine and Pharmacology �Carol Davila�, Colentina Hospital, II Clinic of Dermatology, Bucharest, Romania

Professor Levaditi Constantin (1874-1954), was born in Galati and he started his medical studies at the Faculty of Medicine of Bucharest, were he caught Professor Victor Babes� attention. In the following years he continued his training at the Pasteur Institute in Paris, under the guidance of professor Ilia Mecinikov and thereafter in Frankfurt am Main, with Paul Ehrlich. In 1903 together with Emile Roux and Ilia Mecinikov he carried out the transmission of syphilis from man to monkey. Thanks to his special qualities he was appointed Assistant at the Pasteur Institute in 1905. In the same year he discovered the existence of a spirochete in congenital syphilis. He was concerned with the improvement of the detection techniques of treponemes, discovering a new staining method with silver nitrate (Levaditi-Manoulein). Thereafter he dedicated himself to the therapy of syphilis, reporting in 1907, before Paul Ehrlich, the sprochaeticidall activity of atoxil (a chemical compound containing arsenic). In 1921 he discovered and pioneered the use as antisyphilitic drugs of the bismuth compounds. In this period, he published together with J. Roche the work �Le syphilis� (Ed. Masson, Paris 1909). After World War I he came back to the country where, for a short while, he was professor of dermatology at the University of Medicine of Cluj-Napoca. Under his initiative in 1920 the first romanian film on sanitary education entitled �The Dreadfulness of the World" was shot. His scientific activity was prodigious (more than 750 works), appreciated all over the world. As a result he won the great international prize for chemotherapy �Paul Ehrlich� (1931) and he was elected Honorary Member of the Romanian Academy and Member of the French Medical Academy

EADV 2002 - P18-2
The life of Mor Kaposi: the years in Bratislava (1853 - 1856)
Sz�p Z Department of Pediatric Dermatovenereology, Children University Hospital, Bratislava, Slovak Republic

Mor Kaposi is one of the most important personalities of the 19th ct. dermatology. Together with F. Hebra, they were the founders of Vienna�s dermatological school. Kaposi�s personality and dermatological school founded by him greatly influenced the development of the dermatology in the whole Central European region.

There will be disclosed so far unknown data from his life, conserning the years he spent at the grammar school in Bratislava between 1853-1856. The author describes the history of the Catholic Grammar School in Bratislava, its curriculum, the teacher staff and the school achievment as well as the results of the school-leaving examination.